CS 11 Handout
I Basic computer concepts A Definition of a computer B Number systems and conversion C Types of programming languages Program Development Cycle A Problem Identification B Logic Formulation C Coding D Testing and Debugging E Storage and Maintenance Program Logic Formulation A Algorithms B Algorithm Representation 1 Flowchart 2 Pseudocode Programming Fundamentals A Data Types B Variables and Constants C Operators D Expressions Control Structures A Sequential B Conditional C Iterative Modular Programming A Subprograms B Parameter-passing C Return values
electronic device as opposed to a simpler electric device. Electronic vs electric? A machine or device is electrical simply if it uses electricity for it to function. A machine, on the other hand, is electronic if it uses electrical charge in circuits and manipulates the flow of electricity to perform a variety of functions depending on where charge is routed. Hardware Hardware are the parts of a computer that are tangible or a person may sense. Components of a computer may also be classified according to their purpose. 01 Input devices exempli gratia, keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, et cetera 02 Output devices exempli gratia, monitor, speaker, printer, et cetera 03 Storage devices exempli gratia, diskettes, compact discs, bar codes, et cetera 04 Processor Some components now may perform more than one function. For example, touchscreens allow both input and output to be performed. Such devices are more aptly called interface devices. Other examples of these are Braille pads (keyboards with tactile and haptic feedback for persons who are visually-impaired) and CD-RW drives. CD-RW drives allow input by reading discs and output by writing to them. On the other hand, CD-ROM drives are only input devices as they do not have the functionality of writing on compact discs. Software Software is the intangible component of the computer. Software is what often makes modifications or controls what the hardware does. These are more flexible than the hardware as the user may modify these more conveniently. In addition, it is easier to create software than hardware.
Basic computer concepts
Definition of a computer A computer is defined as an electronic device that accepts input, stores and manipulates or processes data, and provides output in the form of useful information. With this definition, the four classical functions of a computer are defined. 01 02 03 04 Input Processing Output Storage
It is important to note that the concept of a modern computer involves it being an
Software may be classified as either 01 System software; or 02 Application software. System software are programs that deal directly with the hardware and bridges the hardware and the application software. Operating systems like Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X allow for other programs to run on top of the hardware of the computer. To avoid having users deal with computers at a low level, application software are designed and made to make operating the computers much easier. Peopleware Peopleware is a modern term used to refer to anybody involved in the development or use of software or hardware systems. Technically, these persons are no longer part of the computer, but highly influence the technology attached to it. Number systems and conversion The numeral system we are used to as persons is not what the computer finds convenient to represent. This is borne out of the number of fingers by which a group of our ancestors used to count with. Each digit represented in a numeral system is magnified by a power of its base. For example, 24310 is a representation for 2×102 + 4×101 + 3×100 or 2×100 + 4×10 + 3×1. There are, in fact, other numeral systems used by different groups before. • The duo-decimal system was used by groups of Chinese by counting on each of the twelve finger segments on one hand aside from the thumb. • The sexagesimal system is...
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