Angelo D. Alfaro
Mrs. Salome D. Uy
A drug is a substance which may have medicinal, intoxicating, performance enhancing or other effects when taken or put into a human body or the body of another animal and is not considered a food or exclusively a food. What is considered a drug rather than a food varies between cultures, and distinctions between drugs and foods and between kinds of drug are enshrined in laws which vary between jurisdictions and aim to restrict or prevent drug use. Even within a jurisdiction, however, the status of a substance may be uncertain or contested with respect to both whether it is a drug and how it should be classified if at all. There is no single, precise definition, as there are different meanings in drug control law, government regulations, medicine, and colloquial usage. In pharmacology, a drug is "a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being." Drugs may be prescribed for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders. Recreational drugs are chemical substances that affect the central nervous system, such as opioids or hallucinogens. They may be used for perceived beneficial effects on perception, consciousness, personality, and behavior. Some drugs can cause addiction and/or habituation. Drugs are usually distinguished from endogenous biochemicals by being introduced from outside the organism. For example, insulin is a hormone that is synthesized in the body; it is called a hormone when it is synthesized by the pancreas inside the body, but if it is introduced into the body from outside, it is called a drug. Many natural substances, such as beers, wines, and psychoactive mushrooms, blur the line between food and recreational drugs, as when ingested they affect the functioning of both mind and body and some substances normally considered drugs such as DMT (Dimethyltryptamine) are actually produced by the human body in trace amounts. How are drugs classified?
Drugs are commonly classified according to their legal status or their effects on the central nervous system.
Legal and illegal drugs
Laws and regulations control the availability, quality and price of the "legal" drugs. For example, tobacco may not be sold to persons under the age of 18.
Because they are illegal, there are no price or quality controls on the illicit drugs such as heroin and ecstasy. This means that a user can never be sure that the drug they are taking is in fact what they think it is; for example, PMA (paramethoxyamphetamine), a toxic form of amphetamine, has been sold as ecstasy. The user also cannot be sure of a drug's strength or purity. Various batches of an illegally manufactured drug may have different mixtures of the drug and additives such as poisons, caffeine or even talcum powder. Effects on the central nervous system
There are three main types of drug affecting the central nervous system. Depressants
Depressants are drugs that slow down the functions of the central nervous system. Depressant drugs do not necessarily make a person feel depressed. They include:
Alcohol ("booze", "grog")
Cannabis ("pot", "dope", "mull")
Benzodiazepines (tranquilisers), "benzos", "tranx" such as Rohypnol, Valium, Serepax, Mogadon, Normison and Eupynos
GHB (Gamma-hydroxybutrate), or "fantasy"
Opiates and opioids, including heroin ("H", "smack"), morphine, codeine, methadone and pethidine
Some solvents and inhalants
In small quantities, depressants can cause the user to feel more relaxed and less inhibited. In larger quantities they can cause unconsciousness, vomiting and even death. Depressants affect concentration and coordination. They slow down a person's ability to respond to unexpected situations. Stimulants
Stimulants act on...
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