Effects theories were developed and introduced into the media in the 1920s; they are used to look at how media texts or products influence people who consume them, they are used more and more particularly in recent years to look at how negative messages for example sexual and violent based content affect different audience groups. There are two main effects theories that are used within the which are known as “Uses and gratifications” and “Hypodermic model”. Uses and Gratifications Theory
Uses and Gratifications Theory is a popular approach to understanding mass communication. The theory places more focus on the consumer, or audience, instead of the actual message itself by asking “what people do with media” rather than “what media does to people” (Katz, 1959). It assumes that members of the audience are not passive but take an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives. The theory also holds that audiences are responsible for choosing media to meet their needs. The approach suggests that people use the media to fulfil specific gratifications. This theory would then imply that the media compete against other information sources for viewers' gratification. (Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. 1974).
This Theory is all about the role people play in choosing and understanding/using what they learn from media. Some people use media as a way of gathering information for example some people watch QI to learn interesting facts and people watch the news to keep up to date with current affairs. However other people use media they take in as a form of escapism. The theory is more about what the general public do with any media they take in rather than the Hypodermic Needle Theory which is about how the media a person takes in affects them. According to communicationtheory.org, there are several needs and gratification for the general public which have been put into five categories: Cognitive needs
Personal integrative needs
Social integrative needs
Tension free needs
Uky.edu quotes the theory with “a media user seeks out a media source that best fulfils the needs of the user”. Hypodermic Needle Model
Ref: http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Mass%20Media/Hypodermic_Needle_Theory/ This is a theory about mass media and its effect on the general public from the WW2 era in history. Some of the factors that were involved in this were:
The rise and popularization of audio and video media (television and radio) The creation of advertisements and propaganda
The study of motion pictures on children (Payne Fund Study 1930) Adolf Hitler’s use of mass media during WW2 to connect the German public and turn them to his cause. The theory suggests that media could influence the general public directly in their subconscious by “injecting” them with an appropriate message or logo which is made to trigger the response that the company behind the message wants. The image of a needle that comes to mind with this theory suggests a direct stream of information into the heads of the public. This theory expresses that media is a dangerous tool for advertising and communication because the viewer is helpless to resist its messages and influences on the mind and there is no escape from all this. Task 2-
Luther is a 2010/2011 psychological British television crime drama which focuses on the unusual crimes that happen on the streets of London. As well as trying to solve murders and investigations, Luther has a stressful life behind the scenes also. Luther was created by Neil Cross The audience would realize that Luther lives in a groggy, little council flat in London. The setting of the flat shows that Luther is still being represented negatively because despite his middle class job as DCI, he still lives a very working class lifestyle. The lack of furniture shows that he...
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