The Relationship between Delinquency and Drug UseIn my attempt to discover if delinquency and drug use, or the sale of drugs were correlated with one another, my research lead to a positive correlation, especially when there was gang membership involved. The theory I have chosen to tie in with my review of the articles I found is the social learning theory of Edwin Sutherland known as differential association theory. According to Britannica online, Sutherland's differential association theory of delinquent behavior is learned from other persons who are also engaged in delinquent behaviors. Sutherland believes that a person becomes delinquent because of an access amount of exposure to the definitions of criminal behavior and the violation of the law (Britannica 2007). This particular belief is a good theory to use to explain juvenile delinquency. Orcutt (1983) explains that Sutherland states that everyone has social groups which influence each of us in the actions that we chose to engage in according to the norms and values of that group. An example would be that most of our parents teach us that we should respect and obey the law. However, there are those that some people are associated with inside their social network that influence in negative ways, tempting and leading others into deviant behavior. Such as assuring those within a group that certain drugs should not be criminalized and that the chance of getting caught with them is very slim. With enough pressure and continued exposure to that mindset and behavior pattern, an individual whom has not been engaged in certain illegal behaviors becomes involved with those activities that promote the illegal and delinquent behaviors. The behavior referred to in this paper is the use or selling of drugs and its connection with juvenile delinquency and gangs. According to Orcutt (1983), Sutherland does point out that learning of social norms and values does not come from the mass population but for one's own intimate connections with family and close peers. Orcutt (1983) also tells us that Sutherland states that the learning process of delinquent behavior is the exact same process as it is for the learning of accepted norms and values. When a child learns through his close peers or family members the definitions and techniques for delinquent behavior, that child is more likely than not to act on his/her acquired knowledge when he/she sees the benefits of delinquent behavior as outweighing the disadvantages.
An example of this would be delinquency through gang involvement. A study was conducted in Arizona that used data from the Arizona Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program that supported the hypothesis that current gang members were significantly more likely to use drugs (marijuana and cocaine) as compared with former gang members (Katz, Charles M., Vincent J. Webb and Scott H. Decker 2005). The ADAM program is designed to collect data from recently booked arrestees. This data was collected from two counties in Arizona, Maricopa and Pima Counties. It is important to note that only those juveniles that were detained by the police and held were the subjects of this study and not the juveniles that had been released to parents or other responsible parties (Katz et al.2005). According to Katz et al. (2005), the variable used for this study focused on gender, age, and ethnicity along with prior arrests, drug history of respondent and what the current school status of the respondent was at the time of the study. The questionnaire included questions on the frequency of drug use that covered a 12 month, 30 day and 3 day period for 13 different types of drugs. The respondents were then asked to provide a urine sample that was calibrated to detect drugs ingested within a 72 hour period (Vishner 1991). After the urinalysis was obtained, the respondents were given another questionnaire about affiliation or participation within gangs. The questions asked pertained to level of gang...
References: rmstrong, Todd A. and Chester L. Britt. 2004. "The Effect of Offender CharacteristicsOn Offense Specialization And Escalation." Justice Quarterly 21 (4): 843-876Howell, James C. and Debra K. Gleason. 1999. "Youth Gang Drug Trafficking." JuvenileJustice Bulletin. Retrieved November 15, 2007 (http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/178282.pdf)Katz, Charles M., Vincent J. Webb and Scott H. Decker. 2005 "Using The Arrestee DrugAbuse Monitoring (ADAM) Program To Further Understand The RelationshipBetween Drug Use And Gang Membership." Justice Quarterly 22 (1): 58-88Orcutt, James D. 1983. "Analyzing Deviance". Pp 153-163. Retrieved November18, 2007 (http://deviance.socprobs.net/Unit_3/Theory/DA.htm)Sutherland, Edwin. 2007. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved November 15, 2007,from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9343984Vishner,C. 1991. "A Comparison of Urinalysis Technologies For Drug Testing InCriminal Justice." Washington DC : National Institute Of Justice, cited in CharlesM. Katz, Vincent J. Webb and Scott H. Decker. 2005. "Using The Arrestee DrugAbuse Monitoring (ADAM) Program To Further Understand The RelationshipBetween Drug Use and Gang Membership." Justice Quarterly 22 (1) 58-88
Please join StudyMode to read the full document